Bulgaria (Bulgaria bolg., the official name - Republic of Bulgaria (Bulgaria bolg. Republica) - a state in south-eastern Europe, in the eastern part of the Balkan Peninsula. It occupies 22% of its area. The country was named by ethnonym people - Bulgarians.
On the east by the Black Sea. It shares borders with Greece and Turkey to the south, Serbia and Macedonia - to the west and Romania - in the north.
The total length of border is 2245 km, of which 1181 km - on land, 686 miles - along the rivers and 378 km - by sea. The length of roads - 36 720 km, the railway network - 4300 km.
History of Bulgaria
The oldest population of the territory of modern Bulgaria, of which there are reliable data were the Thracians, the Indo-European tribes who lived here at least since I millennium BC.Oe. By the I century BC. Oe. Thracian lands were part of the Roman Empire was divided between the provinces of Thrace and Moesia. Several centuries earlier on the coast of the Greek colonies arose on which the Thracians as a result have adopted the Greek language. After the partition of the Roman Empire in 395 AD in both Western and Eastern provinces have moved to the Eastern Roman Empire. C VII century BC. Oe. as a result of the Great Migration, in the Balkans began to settle the southern Slavs gradually assimilated the remnants of the Thracians.
The first state of Bulgarians, which kept accurate historical information, was the Great Bulgaria, the state, uniting the tribes of the Proto-Bulgarians and existed in the Black Sea and Azov steppes throughout the decades. The capital city of the state was Phanagoria, and its founder and ruler was the khan Kubrat.Citizens of the state were different tribes of Turkic-speaking ancient Bulgarians.
First Bulgarian Empire
After the death of Kubrat state had collapsed and the sons of Khan, each with their own tribe, migrated in different directions . Kubrat died in 665, and the onset of the Khazars began even before his death. Legend has it that before his death, bequeathed to his sons Kubrat be the same as a bundle of arrows, but the superiority of the Khazars was so great that part of Great Bulgaria was a foregone conclusion even before the death Kubrat. Another confusion arises on the question, how many years the Bulgarians went on resettlement under the leadership of Asparuh. The battle took place with the Byzantine Empire in 680, and from the capital of Great Bulgaria Phanagoria, which was at the Taman peninsula, Krasnodar Territory, to the mouth of the Danube just a few hundred kilometers. In addition, the Bulgarians made several raids into the Balkans in the 6th and early 7th century, so that the Balkans were familiar to them. Most likely, Asparuh long pondered where to go among hostile nations - this version is impossible to prove the absence of sources at the time. Bulgarians know that in the north of the Balkan Mountains Byzantine Slavic tribes were numerous, but because of its fragmentation could not resist a well-organized Byzantine troops. The Slavs had no cavalry, militia consisted only of infantry. Bulgarians, as part of a Hun invasion of Europe, had one of the best cavalry of the time - like the Mongols, among the Bulgarians "fancy riding" begun at the age of 3-4 years of age. In what is now northern Bulgaria there was a union of the Seven Slavic tribes - from the river Timok to the west, the Balkan Mountains to the south, the Black Sea to the east and the Danube to the north - those were the Slavic tribes, with whom an alliance Asparuh. This alliance was mutually beneficial - it seems improbable legend that the Slavs greeted with bread and salt warlike tribe of riders with a good government organization. Up to the baptism of Bulgaria in 863 Bulgarians were the aristocracy and the rule of the army, but then after a long period formed a single Bulgarian ethnos. One of the sons of Kubrat - Asparuh, with his tribe occupied the land beyond the river Dniester on the northwest coast of the Black Sea. There he joined the allied relations with the local Slavic tribes and founded in 681 the Bulgarian state, the so-called First Bulgarian Empire . The official starting point of the existence of the First Bulgarian Empire is the signing of Bulgarians and Byzantium after the military defeat of the latter at the mouth of the Danube, on which the Byzantine Empire has committed to pay tribute to the Bulgarians. Became the capital of Pliska. As part of the state includes proto Slavs and a small part of the local Thracians. Subsequently, these ethnic groups formed a people of Slavic Bulgarians, called on the country and speaking the language from which modern Bulgarian occurred. At the beginning of IX century, the territory of the state significantly expanded with the Avar khanate conquered.
Up to 865 years of Bulgaria's rulers bore the title of Khan, when Tsar Boris the country officially adopted Christianity (from Byzantium, the Eastern rite), and rulers began to wear the title of prince and then king. However, in the annals of Ksantenskih under 868 year set out a different version of the Christianization of the country: "The people of Bulgaria, which is still revered false idols, he turned to the Catholic faith when he ordered happen among the people of astounding signs and wonders. When Nicholas, the highest priest and universal pope of Rome, the apostolic men were sent, they took [them] the preaching of God, Jesus Christ and were baptized. "
Under Tsar Simeon State reached the zenith of its geopolitical and included the territory of modern Bulgaria, Romania, Macedonia, Serbia, the eastern part of Hungary, and southern Albania, part of mainland Greece, the south-western part of Ukraine and almost the entire territory of European Turkey.Became the capital of Preslav, in contrast to the former pagan capital. When Simeon the Bulgarian state also experienced an unprecedented cultural flowering that began with the creation of writing Cyril and Methodius, was created huge body of medieval Bulgarian literature.
Virtually all of its history, the kingdom was forced to fight the Byzantines. After a successful wars and conquest ambitions formed Simeon increased so much that he thought that should be emperor of Byzantium, conquered her, and sought international recognition of the status of the Empire (kingdom) for his state and independent church. His dreams were realized in part during the reign of his son, but Simon made a mistake by appointing as his successor his second son - Peter I, who believed that his calling - to be a monk, not a king. At the end of the empire of Peter the Bulgarians began to shatter under the impact of the Byzantine Empire and the Hungarians, but the final blow was the campaign of Prince Svyatoslav of Kiev, which is not using very large forces at the time seized the capital and part of the territory. The future king and military leader Samuel managed to recover a large part of the empire, but was lost capital and Thracian territory, which constituted the "heart of the country," as well as north-western areas, getting to the Magyars.
In 1018, after the death of Samuel Bulgaria was conquered by the Byzantine Empire and ceased to exist almost two centuries.From 1018 to 1187 years of Bulgaria's territory is the province of the Byzantine Empire, although it was confirmed the autonomy of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church (the Archbishop of Ohrid). The country went through during that time two unsuccessful uprisings, Peter and Constantine Bodin Delyana. In the XI century in Bulgaria as part of the Byzantine Empire has consistently threatened by the Normans (Vikings), Pechenegs and Hungarians. In the years 1185-1187 uprising led by brothers Ivan Asen and Peter led to the liberation of the country from the Byzantine rule and the establishment of the Second Bulgarian Kingdom.
Second Bulgarian Empire
Boyars Asen kind, living in Tarnovo, in 1185 sent an embassy to the Byzantine emperor Isaac Angelus asking them to confirm their ownership. The arrogant refusal and beating the embassy became a signal for revolt. In a short time, the uprising spread to the territory of the Balkan Mountains to the Danube. Since then the union has begun and Bulgarians with Polovtsy known in Bulgaria as Cumans - Polovtsy repeatedly fought alongside with the Bulgarians against the Byzantines.
Second Bulgarian Kingdom existed from 1187 to 1396, became the new capital city of Turnovo. In 1197 Assen I was killed by rebellious boyar Ivanko, who defected to the Byzantines. Peter, the middle brother, also fell into the hands of murderers. In southern Bulgaria there are two independent states - led by the warlord Dobromir chrysene in this town of Melnik, and a despot glory in the Rhodope Mountains, its fortress Tzepina no longer exists. After becoming king in 1197, Kaloyan hard to suppress the opposition and began a rapid expansion in Bulgaria. The last center of Byzantium in northern Bulgaria, Varna - then Odessos, was taken by storm March 24, 1201, on Easter Sunday. All the Byzantine garrison was interrupted and was buried in the trenches of the fortress. Kaloyan, who, during the reign of his brother Asen I was held hostage in Konstaninopole, received a good Greek education. Nevertheless, he earned the nickname "Romeoubiytsa." According to the Byzantine chronicler George Akropolita "He took revenge on rum for the evil that perpetrate Bulgarian Emperor Basil I, and called himself Romeoubiytsem ... And really, no other rum perpetrate so much trouble!" Taking advantage of the defeat of Byzantium by the Crusaders, he inflicted several major defeats the Latin Empire, defeating the troops of IV Crusade, and extended its influence to most of the Balkan Peninsula. After the capture of Constantinople by the troops of the Fourth Crusade, Kaloyan began a correspondence with Pope Innocent, and received from him the title "emperor." In 1205, shortly after the defeat of the Crusaders, the Bulgarian troops suppressed an uprising in the Byzantine city of Plovdiv - the leader of the revolt, was hanged Alex Aspieta head down.
After the death of Kaloyan Bulgaria lost a substantial part of the territory, but then reached its highest glory during the Tsar Ivan Assen II (1218-1241), who controlled almost the entire Balkan Peninsula. In 1235 the Bulgarian patriarchate was restored, but his reign, Ivan Assen II maintained relations with the Catholic countries. In the last year of his reign, defeated the Mongols came from Hungary.
After the death of Ivan Asen II state began to weaken. The Mongols still destroyed it in 1242, and Bulgaria was forced to pay tribute to them. In the XIII century, Bulgaria again lost most of its territories passed to the heirs of the Byzantine Empire and Hungary, and also lost control over Wallachia. Asen dynasty was interrupted in 1280. Theodore Svetoslav king of the next dynasty, Tartar, in 1300 signed an agreement with the Tartars, by which Bessarabia and has ceased to pay tribute. In 1322 he also signed a treaty with Byzantium, who finished a long period of wars.
The subsequent history of Bulgaria is a constant war with Hungary and Serbia. A brief period of prosperity have at the beginning of the reign of King John Alexander (1331-1371), when Bulgaria was able to defeat the Serbs and the control of the Rhodope and the Black Sea coast. At this time also have to lift culture, known as the "second golden age."
In 1353 the Turks crossed into Europe, who took in 1362 Plovdiv, in 1382 - Sofia, and in 1393, after a three-month siege - Veliko Tarnovo. After the death of John Alexander of Bulgaria was divided into two states - the capitals in Vidin and Veliko Tarnovo - and failed to provide any resistance Ottomans. Last Turnovo city of the kingdom, Nikopol, was taken by the Turks in 1395, and Vidin kingdom - in 1396. Second Bulgarian kingdom ceased to exist.
Economy Second Bulgarian Kingdom was founded on agriculture (Danube plain and Thrace) and mining and smelting of iron. Bulgaria has also been developed gold mining.
At the end of XIV century Bulgaria was conquered by the Ottoman Empire. At first it was a vassal state, and in 1396 Sultan Bayazid I annexed it after the victory over the Crusaders at the Battle of Nikopol. The result of five hundred Turkish rule was the complete ruin of the country, the destruction of cities, in particular, fortresses, and a decrease in the population. Already in the XV century, all the Bulgarian authorities above the level of communal (rural and urban) were dissolved. Bulgarian Church has lost autonomy and was subject to the Patriarch of Constantinople.
Land formally owned by the Sultan as the representative of Allah on earth, but really it was obtained using the Sipah that should have put the cavalry in time of war on the orders of the Sultan.The number of troops was proportional to the size of land ownership. Bulgarian peasants to the system of feudal land tenure was initially lighter than the old feudal Bulgarian, but the Turkish government has been deeply hostile to all Christians.Despite the fact that those farmers who lived on land owned by the Islamic religious institutions - Waqif - had some privileges, all Bulgarians were marginalized status - the so-called. "Paradise" (Turkish herd). The Ottomans tried to draw all people to Islam by force, but all Christians, including living on the land Waqif, pay more taxes than the Muslims had no right to bear arms, and they are subject to many discriminatory measures in comparison with the Muslims. Most Bulgarians were Christians who converted to Islam by force the Bulgarians - the so-called. Pomaks, mostly in the Rhodopes, preserved Bulgarian traditions and many.
Bulgarians resisted and raised numerous rebellions against the Ottoman Empire, most notably the revolt of Constantine and Fruzhina (1408-1413), first Turnovo Uprising (1598), Second Turnovo Uprising (1686), rising Karposha (1689). All of them were suppressed.
In the XVII century the sultan's authority, and with it the Ottomans and established institutions, including land tenure, began to wane, and in the XVIII century, went into crisis. This led to a strengthening of local authorities sometimes set very strict laws on their lands. In the late XVIII and early XIX century Bulgaria fell into anarchy, in fact. This period is known in history as a gang of kurdzhaliystvo kurdzhali, terrorized the country. Many peasants fled the countryside to the cities, some emigrated, including the south of Russia.
Simultaneously, the XVIII century was marked by the beginning of the Bulgarian Revival, associated primarily with the names of Paisii Hilendarski, who wrote the Bulgarian history in 1762, and Sophronia Vratsa and with the national liberation revolution. This period lasted until the independence of Bulgaria in 1878.
The Bulgarians were considered a separate ethnic and religious groups in the empire (before they were regarded as members of the administrative millet-and-rum , which incorporates all the Orthodox subjects of the Sultan under the Ecumenical Patriarch) by the Sultan's firman in Vizier Aali Pasha, declared February 281870, which establishes an autonomous Bulgarian Exarchate.
Part of Bulgaria won the right of administrative autonomy within the Ottoman Empire after the defeat of Turkey in the war with Russia in 1877-1878 (See articles of San Stefano and Berlin World Congress).
Fifth was the capital city of Sofia. Since 1879, when it was adopted fairly liberal Tarnovo Constitution, the state became the principality, led by Prince Alexander Battenberg I (prinz Alexander Joseph von Battenberg), who was replaced by Ferdinand I (Ferdinand Maximilian Karl Leopold Maria von Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Prince of July 7, 1887 to September 22, 1908, when the principality of Bulgaria declared independence from the Ottoman Empire - the king of September 22, 1908 to October 3, 1918).
In recent times
From 1908 - an independent state.
In 1912-1913 participated in the Balkan wars, as a result of which have been at the expense of the Ottoman territorial gains in Macedonia and Thrace and exit to the Aegean Sea.
In World War I came to the side of Germany. After being defeated, lost much of its territory and the exit to the Aegean Sea. October 2, 1918 came to the throne after King Boris III's abdication of his father King Ferdinand. After 1920, Bulgaria has become one of the largest centers of Russian White emigres. Up until 1944, acted in Bulgaria third department of the Russian Union of Pan-Martial. Between the wars, King Boris III successfully repelled the attack of various governments, who tried to wrest power from the monarch and the monarchy to a purely formal.
During the Second World War
By the beginning of World War II, Tsar Boris III of Bulgaria sought to ensure neutrality. B. Filov government (1940-43) refused to accept the Soviet proposal to conclude a Soviet-Bulgarian treaty of friendship and mutual assistance. March 1, 1941 Filov signed in Vienna Agreement on Accession of Bulgaria to the Berlin Pact, German troops entered the Bulgarian territory, to-Rui Germany soon used as a springboard for attacks on the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and Greece (April 1941). Due to the growing influence of Germany, Bulgaria has on her side in the war that brought the return of Bulgaria's north-eastern region of Dobrogea, Romania belongs, selected after an unsuccessful second Balkan war.
December 13, 1941 Bulgaria declared war on Britain and the United States.
Bulgaria participated in the occupation of southern Yugoslavia and northern Greece. The Bulgarian army and gendarmerie in 1941 brutally suppressed the uprising of the Greek population in Eastern Macedonia. Nazi Germany actually gave these areas the Bulgarian kingdom in return for cooperation.
11 000 Jews were residents of the Greek and Macedonian areas annexed by Bulgaria in April 1941. In 1943, Bulgarian police arrested all the Jews living there and on the orders of the Nazi concentration camp sent them to Treblinka . The Nazis demanded the deportation of Bulgarian Jews 48 000, but the government failed to meet this requirement due to public outcry and the church, and King Boris III in 1943 had condemned Germany's request to deport Bulgarian Jews.
The Government of the Soviet Union, regarding the policy guidance of Bulgaria as the actual conduct of war camp in Germany against the Soviet Union declared (note the Soviet Government dated September 5, 1944) that the Soviet Union will now be at war with Bulgaria. September 8, 1944 the Red Army entered the territory of Bulgaria. October 28, 1944 in Moscow by representatives of the USSR, Britain and the U.S. signed an armistice with Bulgaria. In accordance with this part of the Bulgarian Army with the Red Army, participated in operations to liberate the German troops from the territory of Yugoslavia, Hungary and Austria. In the battles against the German unit killed 33 000 Bulgarian soldiers.
In 1943, after the German defeat at El Alamein (October 23 - November 4, 1942) and Stalingrad (November 19, 1942 - February 2 1943) King Boris was to seek contact with Anglo-American circles. This caused suspicion among Hitler. Boris was summoned to Hitler's headquarters for an explanation.According to published data of British intelligence (E. Cookridge - EH Cookridge, 1948), during the return to Sofia on August 28, after an audience with Hitler, King Boris, who requested a separate peace, was assassinated. Later it became clear that he died of a heart attack.
After World War II
After the death of the king on the throne of his six-year son Simeon II. In fact, the state began to manage his regents. The Board of the young king was short - he had his family flee to Egypt and then to Spain, so as a referendum after September 15, 1946, conducted under the supervision of the Red Army, was proclaimed the People's Republic of Bulgaria.
The peace treaty was signed by Bulgaria in 1947.
Republic has developed along the socialist road until the end of 1989, when the country emerged from under Soviet influence.
November 10, 1989 in Bulgaria began the deep economic and political reforms. On November 15, 1990 country called the Republic of Bulgaria. April 2, 2004 Bulgaria joined NATO, and January 1, 2007 - in the European Union.
Post-socialist Bulgaria presidents were Peter Mladenov, Zhelyu Zhelev, Petar Stoyanov, Georgi Parvanov.
In the mid-1990s, the Socialists were in power. In 2001-2005, Prime Minister of Bulgaria, was the former king Simeon II (Simeon Saxe-Coburg Gotha), who heads his own political party the National Movement "Simeon II". From August 2005 to July 2009 were in power a coalition government led by the socialist Sergey Stanishev. In the cabinet Stanishev also included representatives of the party of Simeon Saxe-Coburg Gotha and the Movement for Rights and Freedoms Ahmed Dogan.
At the 2009 parliamentary elections the Socialists and the Liberals suffered a serious defeat Simeon. Most places gained a new batch of "GERD", led by the charismatic Boyko Borisov.This party, although it is quite the populist rhetoric of his, but in fact its ideology - radical liberalism. "GERD" stands for the European option for Bulgaria and its further participation in the Euro-Atlantic cooperation. July 27, 2009 study led by Boyko Borisov, took up his duties.
Geography of Bulgaria
The relief of Bulgaria is not homogeneous. A relatively small area of the country are lowlands, plains, hills, low and high mountains, a large number of valleys and deep gorges. The main feature of the topography of Bulgaria is the alternation of bands of high and low terrain that run from east to west across the country. These bands (called geomorphic regions) from north to south are called: the Danube Plain, Stara Planina, the Thracian Plain and Rila Rhodope mountain range. The most eastern provinces near the Black Sea hilly, they are gradually gaining height to the west, and the extreme western part of the country's mountainous. More than two thirds of the country - the plains, plateaus, or hilly ground height of less than 600 m. The plains (below 200 m) account for 31% of the plateau and hills (200-600 m) - 41%, low mountains (600 - 1000 m) 10% , Middle Mountain (1000 - 1500 m) 10, and high mountains (over 1500 m), 3%. The average height of Bulgaria - 470 m
Stara Planina (Balkan Mountains) begins in the Valley Timoshka in Serbia, and continues south to the Sofia basin in central-western Bulgaria. From there, the mountains go east to the Black Sea. The Balkan mountains have a length of about 600 km and a width of 30 - 50 km. They are the highest land is located in central Bulgaria, where is Mount Botev, the highest point of the Balkan mountains with a height 2376 m. The Balkan Mountains are gradually falling to rock the Black Sea coast. The southern slopes of the Balkan Mountains and Mount Sredna pass in the Thracian Plain and the Sofia basin. Has a triangular shape, the Thracian lowland begins at a point east of the mountains near Sofia and extends eastward to the Black Sea. It found the Maritsa River valley and the lowlands, which are located between the river and the Black Sea. Like the Danube lowland, most of the Thracian Plain and the undulating plain is not in the usual sense. Much of the area suitable for agriculture.
The relatively high mountains occupy the area between the Thracian Plain and the Sofia basin and the border with Greece to the south. In the west there are three Range: Vitosha to the south of Sofia, Rila further south and Pirin mountains in the southwestern part of the country. They are the highest topographic region of Bulgaria and the Balkan Peninsula. Rila mountain includes the ridge height of 2925 meters Musala is the highest mountain in the Balkan countries.
Rivers and climate
The Balkan Mountains divide Bulgaria into two nearly equal to the river systems. Most catchment system provides the northern part of Bulgaria, its stock goes into the Black Sea, mainly on the Danube River. This system covers the whole of the Danube plain and extends to 48-80 km inland from its shoreline. Second, the system collects water runoff Thracian Plain and most of the mountainous areas of southern and south-west to the Aegean Sea. Of all the rivers Danube is navigable only, but many other rivers and tributaries in Bulgaria have a high potential for hydropower production and as a source of irrigation water.
The area of Bulgaria is small, but its climate is quite diverse. The country is in the continental and Mediterranean climate zones.Bulgarian mountains and valleys are natural barriers or channels for air masses, which creates sharp contrasts in weather over relatively short distances. Continental climate zone a few more, as continental air masses can easily get to the Danube lowland.The impact of a stronger continental climate in winter, when there are heavy snowfalls and the influence of Mediterranean climate is stronger during the summer, when there is a hot, dry weather.The barrier effect of the Balkan Mountains is felt throughout the country: on average, in northern Bulgaria on one degree colder it gets to 192 millimeters of rain than southern Bulgaria. Since the Black Sea is not large enough to be a major factor influencing the weather in the country, it has a predominant influence only on the coast.
Average rainfall in Bulgaria - about 630 millimeters per year. In Dobrudja the north-east coast of the Black Sea, and parts of the Thracian Plain usually receive less than 500 millimeters. To the rest of the Thracian Plain and the Danube Upland them falls slightly less than the national average, the Thracian Plain is often experiencing a summer drought. In higher areas, which is the most rainfall in the country, the average rainfall may exceed 2540 mm per year.
Administrative division of Bulgaria
Administratively, the country is divided into 28 regions.
City region Sofia
Stara Zagora Region
Veliko Tarnovo region
Demographics of Bulgaria
According to the results of official censuses in Bulgaria in 2011, to February 1, 2011 population of Bulgaria is 7,364,570, of which - 51.3% women and 48.7% men. In urban areas 72.5% live in rural areas - 27.5%. In the period 2001 - 2011, the population of the country Decrease 564 331 people, with the temperature decreases from srednegodishnom 0.7% .
19.6% of residents of the country have higher education, 43.4% - average, 23.1% - basic, 7.8% - initial, 4.8% - incomplete primary and 1.2% had never attended school. [ 9]
In 54.1% of homes in urban and 18.1% in rural areas have personal kompyutry, and in 51.4% and 16.4% - Internet access.
Religion in Bulgaria,%
Orthodoxy 75.96; Catholic 0.85 1.12 Protestant, Armenian apostolizm 0.03 9.48 Sunnis, Shiites 0.48.
Cities in Bulgaria
Policy of Bulgaria
Bulgaria - a parliamentary republic.
Head of state - president, elected by universal and direct suffrage for five years.
Standing supreme legislative body - the unicameral National Assembly (240 members), elected for four years.
The People's Assembly of Bulgaria in Sofia
The supreme court of general jurisdiction is the Supreme Judicial Council, which defines the personal composition of the court, prosecution and investigation in Bulgaria, and the supreme court of the constitutional jurisdiction of the Constitutional Court is Bulgaria, which can cancel the unconstitutional laws and regulations, and its decisions can not be appealed.
In the People's Assembly (Parliament) of Bulgaria, elected July 5, 2009, presented (by the number of members):
Citizens for European Development of Bulgaria (GERB)
Coalition for Bulgaria (7 parties: the Bulgarian Socialist Party and others)
Movement for Rights and Freedoms (MRF)
The National Union "Attack"
Blue Coalition (5 games: SDS, DRC, and others)
Order, law and justice
In the parliamentary elections of June 25, 2005 the victorious coalition "For Bulgaria", led by the Bulgarian Socialist Party (BSP), won 82 parliamentary mandates out of 240 and won the right to form a new government. However, while the Socialists were the largest faction in parliament, to approve the government on their own they could not, because for this they needed support of at least 40 more deputies. The government was prepared using the so-called "grand coalition" with the participation of the Turkish minority party MRF and the National Movement "Simeon II». The government headed by Sergei Stanishev (BSP).
At the next parliamentary elections in Bulgaria, on July 5, 2009, won by the center-right opposition party GERB ("Citizens for European Development of Bulgaria"), headed by the mayor of Sofia Boyko Borisov. His party defeated the Socialists got 117 seats out of 240 in parliament.
Coalition for Bulgaria (BSP) won 40 mandates, DPS - 38, Attack - 21, Blue coalition -15, order, law and justice - 10. The government headed by Boyko Borisov.
Foreign policy and armed forces
External orientation of Bulgaria in most cases coincides with the main areas of European and North Atlantic policy. The main differences of modern foreign policy of Bulgaria to the European and North Atlantic are its strong economic and other ties with Russia. Bulgaria is a member of the European Union (January 1, 2007), NATO (April 20, 2004), the World Trade Organization (December 1, 1996) and the United Nations (December 14, 1955).
The armed forces consist of Army, Navy and Air Force. On December 1, 2007 Bulgaria abolished conscription and completely switched to a professional army. Prior to that time military service in the armed forces of Bulgaria, was nine months, recruits with higher education, served only six months.Current size of the army - 32 000.
Bulgaria's economy has gone through many dramatic moments during the 1990s. The country's economy experienced a serious crisis after the dissolution of Comecon and the weakening of economic ties with the former socialist countries. Living standards have dropped significantly, and only in 2004 the country was able to reach the 1989 level. In addition, the negative impact on the state of the Bulgarian economy affected the sanctions against Serbia and Iraq.
The reforms have led to stabilization in the economy, the rise of industry and increased foreign investment in the country. The European Commission in 2002 recognized Bulgaria as a market economy, thereby recognizing the achievements of the Government in carrying out market reforms. The country's budget is balanced with a surplus of 3%, which together with the stable growth of GDP has reduced the public debt of Bulgaria to 22.8% of GDP in 2006 against 67.3% five years earlier. On the other hand, Bulgaria has a negative balance of payments (2007). Low interest rate the inflow of foreign capital. Gross domestic product per capita at PPP in 2007 was only about one-third of the average level in the EU25, while the nominal gross domestic product per capita - about 13%. On January 1, 2008 income tax for all categories of citizens will be charged at a rate of 10%.This is one of the lowest rates in the world and the lowest in the EU. In the 2009 report Analysis of the European statistical agency «Eurostat» one of the "cheap" country called Bulgaria, which cost the life of a 49% lower than average in Europe.
Country's currency - Bulgarian lev. July 5, 1999 carried a denomination of currency: the new lion in 1000 replaced the old ones. Unstable inflation threatens the country's accession to the eurozone. The Bulgarian government had planned to replace the lion euros in 2010. However, experts are predicting that it could not happen before 2012.
Advantages: coal and gas. Productive agriculture, especially wine and tobacco production. Close ties with the EU. Production software.
Weaknesses: outdated infrastructure and equipment, high debt in all industries. Stretching to the 1998 privatization and structural reforms.
Culture in Bulgaria
Tourism in Bulgaria is one of the most important contributions to the country's GDP. Most tourists visit the resort or summer or winter, according to the season. The prospect of developing tourism in the country rainbow country has a cultural and natural attractions. According to the National Institute of Statistics, in 2010 Bulgaria visited for recreation and sightseeing 8,374,034 people.  They are distributed across countries in this way (all figures are more than 100 000 tourists):
Romania - 1445342;
Greece - 1,017,914;
Turkey - 943 137;
Germany - 853 430;
Macedonia - 409 970;
Russia - 389 864;
United Kingdom - 309 482;
Serbia - 307 838;
Poland - 294 131;
Ukraine - 199 080;
Czech Republic - 184 440;
France - 181 317;
Austria -181 577;
Netherlands -156 436;
Israel -131 144;
Hungary - 124 438
Bulgarian literature - the oldest of the Slavic dates back to the year 886, with the emergence of Preslav school books.
Old Bulgarian (bolg. "staroblgarska") literature has arisen in connection with the state's desire to convert to Christianity the heathen right-Bulgarians and Slavs (as these two elements of the Bulgarian Khanate existed until apart), as well as remnants of pre-Slavic and up-Bulgarian population. The southern half of Bulgaria was subjected to a greater extent the Greek (Byzantine) influence, so there is Christianity gradually penetrated before.Outstanding literary monuments of the ancient Bulgarian literature period ending in 1393, and the average period, which lasted until the book Pais, are: "Zograph" and "Mariinsky" gospel, "Savva book" and "Suprasl collection." From St.Clement survived: the lives of the Saints. Cyril and Methodius, the "breviary of Sinai" and "word of praise to Saint Cyril", by John the Exarch, "Heaven," "Six Days", from Chernorizets Brave, "Oh pismeneh" from Prezviter Kozma, "A Conversation against Bogomil"; from unknown authors - the lives of various saints and a lot of the Apocrypha. From srednebolgarskogo period were: "obituary of Boris', 'Dobromirskoe gospel," "The Ohrid Apostle", "Tales of Aesop," and numerous saints' lives written by the patriarch and Euthymius Tarnovo: "Life of St. Nicholas of Sofia", "Abagar", "Koprivschensky Damascus" and etc. Production of translated literature is so powerful that Bulgaria has to supply this literature other Slavic countries.
In the first centuries of Ottoman rule in Bulgaria literary life has moved to Kiev and Moscow, as well as in Romania and other neighboring areas. In Bulgaria itself against the development of literature showed no signs of life, a fact that says a lot about the nature of Turkish rule in the first footnote to this and all information to change derives from Volumes 1, 2, 3, 5 series "Entsiklopediya Bulgaria" Publisher Bulgarian Academy of Sciences </ ref> of the low political level of the masses of their backwardness. At the beginning of the XVIII century, in connection with the national awakening of the Bulgarians, the literary life is growing. The new Bulgarian literature related to the period of political renaissance in Bulgaria. The epoch of national revival, national-revolutionary struggle for liberation has its own literature. She begins the book from a monk of the monastery Svyatogorsk Paisii Hilendarski "Slav-Bulgarian History of the Bulgarian people and kings" (1762). This book played a huge role in the cultural life of the Bulgarian nation. The nature of this literature in its further development was Ch. arr. advocacy and journalistic.
Architecture and art
Need to build a temple for worship marked the beginning of the actual Bulgarian architecture. The most famous monument of Bulgarian architecture of this time are the Rila Monastery and the Boyana Church.
The development of art contributed to the Byzantine tradition, although with frescos were still decorated with Thracian tombs more than a thousand years. Evidence of identity of Bulgarian iconography school are icons using as the basis not of boards, and ceramic. At the same time, there is fairly strict canons of icon painting in some limited development of their own traditions.The frescoes in the cave churches of Ivanovo bear the imprint of a national tradition and character "Palaeologus Renaissance."Also known painting of the Boyana Church (especially relating to the 1259 mural depicting the founding of the monastery (Ktitorov) - Kaloyan and Desislava), Church of St.. George in Sofia, Rila and Poganovskogo monasteries. In this eastern Bulgaria has experienced a greater degree Byzantine cultural influence, while in South-West Bulgaria (today's Macedonia) is better preserved national traditions.
After his release in 1878 of Bulgaria from Ottoman domination of its art and architecture are gradually integrated into the European artistic process.
With the establishment of Christianity developed, and church singing in the Old Bulgarian language, but during the Byzantine rule (1018-1187) entry in the Bulgarian church canonized Byzantine chanting delayed development associated with the traditional basis of the Bulgarian national religious chants. After liberation from the domination of the Byzantine Empire and the formation of the Second Bulgarian Kingdom (1187-1396) began to flourish Bulgarian culture. In XIII-XIV centuries. under the influence of folk music was formed Bulgarian chant, examples of which are preserved in liturgical singing of the Russian Orthodox Church of the XVII-XVIII centuries. Since that time, survived "Zografski trefology» (XIII cent.) And "obituary in the CAR Boreal» (XIV cent.) - The only extant written records of musical notation. Many Byzantine choir - of Bulgarian origin. The most famous of them - singer and songwriter John Koukouzel, nicknamed "Angeloglasnym" (he lived in a monastery in the Byzantine Empire). He created a neo-Byzantine nevmennuyu notation (so-called. "Kukuzelevy nevmy"), which is used in modern church music, and to this day.
During the Ottoman rule in Bulgaria did not have any music institutions and music education. Only some Bulgarians received his musical education in Russia and Europe. After the Liberation of Bulgaria, some of them returned to their homeland and created samples of original Bulgarian classical music.
In 1899 Emanuil Manolov created the first Bulgarian opera - "Siromahkinya." In 1890-1892 years. made the first attempt to make an opera troupe.
As well as Emanuil Manolov, Dimitar Manolov conductor, being a graduate of the Moscow Conservatory, made a significant contribution to the development of Bulgarian music and performing arts in the world.
The first amateur dance troupes in the Bulgaria appeared in Sofia in 1900.
Theatre in Bulgaria started to develop from the middle of the XIX century.
Significant role in the director's theater played N. O. Massalitinov.
After World War II in the Bulgarian theater actively propagated socialist realism.
The first feature film in Bulgaria, "Bulgarian Gallant" delivered in 1915, a theater actor Vasil Gende (Gende bolg. Vasil). In 1933 he was made the first sound film - "Revolt of slaves."
Movie "Escape from bondage" (originally "Kalin Eagle"), "Anxiety," "Heroes of September", "Under the Yoke," "Song of Man", "Stars" (with the GDR, film director Konrad Wolf) taken in 1950 -s won prizes at international film festivals.
In 1960, it should be noted films as "We Were Young", "Resolution on Marriage", "The Chronicle of feelings," "Thief of peaches," "The smell of almonds," "The Longest Night."
Tourism in Bulgaria
Black Sea coast of Bulgaria - the popular trend of beach tourism.Bulgaria was one of the major resorts in the socialist countries of Eastern Europe. In the 1990s the industry experienced a downturn, but now there is growth. The bulk of tourists coming from Western and Eastern Europe, Scandinavia, Germany, Russia, Ukraine and the UK.
The most popular Bulgarian Black Sea resorts:
St. Constantine and Elena
Lalov Egrek (Diving)
Balneotherapy (Spa) Resorts:
At ski resorts, as well as on the Black Sea, is being actively updated database of hotel and mining infrastructure.Construction of new roads, installed modern lifts (eg Doppelmayer). The resort has a small total length of trails, dominated by hills of middle and low complexity than Bulgaria gives a popular Alpine destinations. In March 2008, held in Bansko European tournament downhill for men.