Where is Bulgaria?

Bulgaria is situated in Southeastern Europe, bordering Romania, Serbia, Macedonia, Greece, Turkey and bordering the Black Sea. The northern border with Romania passes along the Danube to Silistra. The territory of Bulgaria 110 550 km ², a little more of Iceland. The country is situated on the west coast of the Black Sea to the north it borders on Romania, to the south - with Greece and Turkey to the west - with Serbia. Despite the relatively small size, the landscape of Bulgaria is extremely diverse. Even in small parts of the country can simultaneously see the valleys, plateaus, hills, mountains, ponds, ravines and deep river valleys. The geographical center of Bulgaria is in the area Uzana.


Despite the fact that historical events are often the reason for changing the national borders of Bulgaria in the first century of its existence, natural terrain features defined most of its borders after 1944, and while none of the groups of people have not experienced any serious economic difficulties in communicationwith it. In the postwar Bulgaria most of the population was ethnic Bulgarians, despite the fact that at different times Bulgaria was experiencing numerous migration. None of the border has not been formally questioned since 1991, but nationalist Bulgarians continued to believe that Bulgaria should belong to the part of Macedonia, which is now divided between the Republic of Macedonia and Greece, at least because of ethnic ties Bulgarians and Macedonians.
The length of the borders of Bulgaria is 2.264 km. River border with totals 680 km, and the Black Sea coast - 400 km south and west boundaries are defined in the main mountain ranges. The western and northern borders shared by Bulgaria with Serbia and Romania respectively, the Black Sea coast is the eastern border of the country. Romanian border runs along the Danube River for 464 km from north-eastern end of the country to the town of Silistra, and then goes to the south-west by 136 km.Danube, with its steep cliffs on the Bulgarian side, and the low-lying marshy area on the Romanian, is one of the most spectacular river boundaries in Europe. Part of the border, passing through the Dobrudja, was controversial and changed several times by international treaties. In this process, strongly influenced by local residents, who chose a country in which they preferred to live. The southern borders are with Greece and Turkey, the length of the Greek border is 491 km, Turkey - 240 km.


The relief of Bulgaria is not homogeneous. A relatively small area of ​​the country are lowlands, plains, hills, low and high mountains, a large number of valleys and deep gorges. The main feature of the topography of Bulgaria is the alternation of bands of high and low terrain that run from east to west across the country. These bands (called geomorphic regions) from north to south are called: the Danube Plain, Stara Planina, Thracian lowland and the Rhodope-Rilski mountain. The most eastern provinces near the Black Sea hilly, they are gradually gaining height to the west, and the extreme western part of the country's mountainous.
More than two thirds of the country - the plains, plateaus, or hilly ground height of less than 600 m. The plains (below 200 m) account for 31% of the plateau and the hills (200 ... 600 m) - 41%, low mountains (600-1000 m) 10% , Middle Mountain (1000-1500m) 10, and high mountains (1,500 m), 3%. The average height of Bulgaria - 470 m
The modern topography of the country - the result of continuous geological development. This development has created igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks of different origin, age and composition. Their formation began more than 500 million years ago during the Precambrian period and continues to this day.The Bulgarian lands are often covered by ancient seas and lakes, some sections of the land rose, the other went down.Volcanic eruptions have occurred frequently, both on land and in water.

Danube hilly plain
Danube plain extends from the western borders to the Black Sea. It covers the area between the Danube, which runs through much of the country's northern border, and the Stara Planina in the south. Moesian platform is on the side of the Danube Plain.As a result of weathering relief was plain, there were valleys and plateaus in the east. The plateau rises slowly from the cliffs near the river to the northern mountains of the Balkan low ridge. The highest point - Tarnow, Diyala (502 m) in Shumen Plateau. Wit and river valleys divide the Danube Yantra valley into three parts - the western, central and eastern. Height increases from west to east. In the north the plain ends steep banks of the Danube or form fertile alluvial plains (Vidin, Chernopolskuyu, Belém, Pobrezhie, Aydemirskuyu).
The hills and plateaus are typical of the topography of the plain.Most of all heights and plateau is situated in the eastern part.There are 14 basaltic rocks between Svishtov and the village Dragomirov.

Stara Planina
The southern part of the Danube Plain, passing in the foothills of the Stara Planina is sometimes regarded as the Bulgarian part of the Carpathians. The shape resembles the reflection arrangement of Carpathians letter «S», they originate in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, pass through the west of Ukraine, northern Romania, then turn south to the middle of Romania, and then go to the west, where they are known as the Transylvanian Alps. Further, the mountain continues to go west to the Iron Gate, gorge on the Danube on the Romanian-Serbian border. At this point, they move to the Bulgarian Stara Planina.
Stara Planina (Balkan Mountains) begins in the Valley Timoshka in Serbia, and continues south to the Sofia basin in central-western Bulgaria. From there, the mountains go east to the Black Sea. The Balkan mountains have a length of about 600 km and a width of 30 - 50 km. They are the highest land is located in central Bulgaria, where is Mount Botev, the highest point of the Balkan mountains with a height 2376 m. The Balkan Mountains are gradually falling to rock the Black Sea coast. Passing through a large part of Bulgaria, the Balkan Mountains form the watershed from which rivers to the north, carry their waters into the Danube, and to the south - in the Aegean Sea. Some smaller rivers in the eastern mountains are flowing directly into the Black Sea. Sredna Gora - a narrow ridge about 160 km in length and height of 1600 meters from east to west, parallel to the Stara Planina. Located between the two parts of the Rose Valley known for rose oil used in perfumes and the production of alcoholic beverages.

Thracian lowland
The southern slopes of the Balkan Mountains and Mid-mountain pass in the Thracian Plain and the Sofia basin. Has a triangular shape, the Thracian lowland begins at a point east of the mountains near Sofia and extends eastward to the Black Sea. It found the Maritsa River valley and the lowlands, which are located between the river and the Black Sea. Like the Danube lowland, most of the Thracian Plain and the undulating plain is not in the usual sense. Much of the area suitable for agriculture.
The largest basin in Bulgaria - Sofia basin. Its width is 24 km, length - 96 km, the basin is located in the capital and adjoining areas. The route through basins and valleys from Belgrade to Istanbul (formerly Constantinople) in Sofia has been historically important since Roman times, which determined the strategic importance of the Balkan Peninsula. The largest city in Bulgaria was laid on this route. Paradoxically, although the mountains made many Bulgarian villages and towns are difficult for the siege, Bulgaria has always been sensitive to invasions of invaders, as the way in Sofia there are no natural barriers.

Rila-Rhodope massif
The relatively high mountains occupy the area between the Thracian Plain and the Sofia basin and the border with Greece to the south. In the west there are three Range: Vitosha to the south of Sofia, Rila further south and Pirin mountains in the southwestern part of the country. They are the highest topographic region of Bulgaria and the Balkan Peninsula. Rila mountain includes the ridge height of 2.925 m Musala is the highest mountain in the Balkan countries. About a dozen other mountains in the Rila are higher than 2600 m. The highest mountain is characterized by sparse bare rocks and some lakes above the tree line. The lower peaks are covered with alpine meadows. For the ridge is characterized by rocky peaks of Pirin and rock slopes. Its highest peak - Vihren height 2915 m, the second highest peak in Bulgaria. Further east are the Rhodopes.
A considerable part of Bulgarian territory is subject to earthquakes. Two particularly sensitive area for them - the Bulgarian border in North Hills (region with its center in the town of Gorna Oryahovitsa) in the North Central region of Bulgaria and the Western Rhodopes, a broad area stretching across the northern region of Pirin and Rila to Plovdiv in south-central Bulgaria . Particularly strong earthquakes also occur along the diagonal of Skopje in the Republic of Macedonia and Razgrad in northeast Bulgaria, and Albania on the east across the southern third of Bulgaria through Plovdiv. Sixteen earthquakes Bulgaria experienced between 1900 and 1986, the last two in Strazhitse line Skopje-Razgrad. These two earthquakes damaged more than 16 000 buildings, half of them had been destroyed. One village was almost completely razed to the ground, others badly damaged.

Rivers of Bulgaria

The Balkan Mountains divide Bulgaria into two nearly equal to the river systems. Most catchment system provides the northern part of Bulgaria, its stock goes into the Black Sea, mainly on the Danube River. This system covers the whole of the Danube plain and extends to 48-80 km inland of the country from its coastline.Second, the system collects water runoff Thracian Plain and most of the mountainous areas of southern and south-west to the Aegean Sea. Of all the rivers Danube is navigable only, but many other rivers and tributaries in Bulgaria have a high potential for hydropower production and as a source of irrigation water.
All Bulgarian tributaries of the Danube, Iskar but originate in the Balkan Mountains. Iskar flows from south to north into the Danube from its source in the Rila Mountains, passing through the eastern suburbs of Sofia, and through the gorge in the Balkan Mountains.
The Danube receives slightly more than 4% of its total volume from its Bulgarian tributaries. Given that he runs along the northern border, the width of the Danube is an average of 1.6 to 2.4 km. The highest water level in the river, usually during the floods in June, the Danube freezes on average, forty days a year.
Several large rivers flow directly into the Aegean Sea. Most of them are fast flowing from the mountains and the deep, scenic gorges. Maritsa and its tributaries - the river system, which collects runoff western part of the Thracian Plain, an array of Sredna Gora, the southern slopes of the Balkan Mountains and the northern slopes of the Eastern Rhodopes. After leaving the Maritsa in Bulgaria, she takes most of the Greek-Turkish border.Struma and Mesta (which flow down from the mountains Pirin and Rhodope massifs of the key) - as big Bulgarian rivers of the Aegean Sea. Struma and Mesta flow into the sea in Greece.

Climate of Bulgaria

The area of ​​Bulgaria is small, but its climate is quite diverse. The country is in the continental and Mediterranean climate zones.Bulgarian mountains and valleys are natural barriers or channels for air masses, which creates sharp contrasts in weather over relatively short distances. Continental climate zone a few more, as continental air masses can easily get to the Danube lowland.The impact of a stronger continental climate in winter, when there are heavy snowfalls and the influence of Mediterranean climate is stronger during the summer, when there is a hot, dry weather.The barrier effect of the Balkan Mountains is felt throughout the country: on average, in northern Bulgaria on one degree colder it gets to 192 millimeters of rain than southern Bulgaria. Since the Black Sea is not large enough to be a major factor influencing the weather in the country, it has a predominant influence only on the coast.
The Balkan Mountains - the northern boundary of the area in which continental air masses circulate freely. Rhodopes are the southern boundary of the dominance of the Mediterranean weather systems. The area between them, which includes the Thracian Plain, is influenced by a combination of these two systems, with a predominance of continental. This combination produces a plains climate with long summers and high humidity.The climate in this region are generally more severe than in other parts of Europe at the same latitude. Since it is a transitional area, average temperatures and rainfall erratic and can vary greatly from year to year.
Average rainfall in Bulgaria - about 630 millimeters per year. In Dobrudja the north-east coast of the Black Sea, and parts of the Thracian Plain usually receive less than 500 millimeters. To the rest of the Thracian Plain and the Danube Upland them falls slightly less than the national average, the Thracian Plain is often experiencing a summer drought. In higher areas, which is the most rainfall in the country, the average rainfall may exceed 2540 mm per year.
In a large number of basins located in the highlands, there are temperature inversions due to stagnation of air. Sofia is located in a valley, but at this altitude (about 530 meters) there is a downward trend in summer temperature and reduce humidity.Sofia is also protected from the northern European winds by the mountains that surround it like a trough valley. The temperature in Sofia average -2 ° C in January and about 28 ° C in August.Rainfall in Sofia - near the national average, and generally quite comfortable climate.
On the Bulgarian coast the climate is temperate due to the Black Sea, but strong winds and strong local storms are frequent during the winter. Winters on the coast of the Danube is very cold, while the protected valley in the south from the Greek and Turkish borders may be as mild climate, as the Mediterranean or Aegean coast.


Like other former European CMEA countries, Bulgaria had planned to make a quick industrial development an important source of social welfare and the basis for socialist construction.Bulgaria has suffered significant ecological damage to the post-war industrial policy. The Government of Todor Zhivkov, who was overthrown in late 1989, have spent huge sums on the development of heavy industry, and environmental protection in the event - funds not enough, so concealed emerging environmental challenges, especially when there was a threat to international relations. Factories that do not implement environmental measures, to pay a symbolic fine and had no incentive to take real action to protect the environment. Even in 1990, officials played down the negative effects of the Chernobyl explosion in 1986. Citizens informed about what is not necessary to supplement iodine in the body or take other protective measures.
In 1991 Bulgarian environmentalists estimated that 60% of the country's agricultural land was contaminated with excessive use of pesticides and fertilizers, as well as polluted by industry. In 1991, two thirds of Bulgarian rivers were polluted, and Yantra river was classified as the dirtiest river in Europe. By the time two thirds of our forests have been felled. However, despite the recognition of the need for additional measures to protect the environment, Bulgaria has provided for this purpose in the budget of only 10.4 billion leva.
Apparently, the most serious environmental problem in Bulgaria was in the Danube port city of Ruse. From 1981 to 1989, chemical contamination, the source of which was a chemical plant on the Danube in Giurgiu, Romania, was forbidden topic of discussion in Bulgaria, because it threatened the good relations between two Warsaw Pact countries. Chemical plants in Russia also contributed to the contamination. Citizens - the environmentalists who are opposed to the situation in Russia, - organized the first demonstrations and the first independent political organization, which has since come out against the regime Zhivkov. During the first year of operation of the plant in Giurgiu chlorine level in Russia has nearly doubled, reaching double the permitted maximum in the summer of 1990, despite government efforts to limit emissions. More than 3000 families have left the city in 1980. In addition to chlorine and its byproducts, the plant produced chemicals for the rubber industry, and in 1991 some sources [source not specified 322 days] reported that the plant is recycled industrial waste from Western countries - both of these factors is likely to further contaminate the environment of Russia . International experts have confirmed that half of the pollutants came from Giurgiu Russia and the other part - of the Bulgarian industry. As a result of protests of environmental organizations, some Bulgarian Bulgarian factories were closed down or stepped up protective measures. However, in 1991 a factory in Giurgiu was planning to expand.
Contamination of agricultural land near the town of Copper Plant Pirdop sparked strong public criticism. The plant was a source of toxic clouds containing copper, lead and arsenic. In 1988 he dropped poisonous effluent into the nearby river, whose water used to irrigate land in the Plovdiv-Pazardzhikskoy Plain, home to some of the best agricultural land in Bulgaria. Groundwater plains had been poisoned. Work started on the sewage treatment plant discharged into the Maritza. Environmental activities in the copper plant and three other factories in the Plovdiv region (factory zinc and lead, chemical plant and a uranium mill) have also been planned, but their implementation will take years.
None of the major cities in Bulgaria has escaped serious environmental pollution. Statistics have shown that 70 - 80% of air pollution caused by emissions from Sofia cars, trucks and buses. Temperature inversions in the city compounded the problem. Two other major source of contamination, metal works Kremikovtsy AD and uranium mine Bukhov (both in southwestern Bulgaria), contaminated the region with lead, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, ethanol, and mercury. City of Kardjali heavily polluted with lead, the source of contamination is the local lead-zinc complex. In 1973 petrochemical plant near the Black Sea port of Burgas dumped large amounts of chlorine.Environmentalists have identified that the area within a thirty-kilometer zone around the plant because it was unfit for human habitation. In 1990 [source not specified 322 days] air in Burgas was also heavily contaminated with sulfur and carbon dioxides.
In 1990, environmentalists have argued that two-thirds of the Bulgarian population are suffering from environmental pollution.In 1991 Bulgaria began to attract international assistance to address environmental problems. In addition to neighboring Romania, Turkey and Russia, which has been studied in conjunction with pollution of the Black Sea, Bulgaria actively took over the environmental technology and expertise from companies and organizations in Western Europe and the USA.

Political Geography of Bulgaria

Bulgaria's political geography has changed dramatically since the restoration of statehood in 1878. Russia, whose military victories led to its attainment, has sought to establish the "Big Bulgaria", which would include a large part of Macedonia. At the Berlin Congress, however, the decision was made much smaller area, divided by 1885 between the Principality of Bulgaria and Eastern Rumelia.
An independent kingdom from 1908 to 1946, and thereafter a republic, Bulgaria sought to expand its territory in the two Balkan wars 1912 - 13 and in World Wars one and two. The defeat in the last three conflicts, has led to considerable loss of territory in 1913 and 1919, although in 1940 the return of South Dobrudja was confirmed by the Paris Peace Treaty in 1947.
Natural hazards: earthquakes, landslides
Environment - current status: air pollution from industrial emissions, polluted rivers untreated sewage, heavy metals, detergents, deforestation, damage to forestry, air pollution and acid rain, soil pollution with heavy metals and industrial waste.

Territory and borders

Total: 110 910 km ²
land: 110,550 km ²
water: 360 km ²
Land boundaries:
Total: 1808 km
Country: Greece 494 km, Republic of Macedonia 148 km, Romania 608 km, Serbia 318 km, Turkey 240 km
Coastline: 354 km
Sea Area:
contiguous zone: 24 miles
exclusive economic zone: 200 miles
territorial sea: 12 miles
lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
highest point: Musala 2925 m

Resources and Land Use

Natural resources: bauxite, copper, tin, zinc, coal, timber, arable land
Land use:
arable land: 43%
permanent crops: 2%
pastures: 14%
Forests: 38%
Other: 3% (1999)
Irrigated land: 12 370 km ² (1993)
Optional: a strategically advantageous position next to the Turkish Straits, across the country are important overland route from Europe to the Middle East and Asia
In Bulgaria, there is only one wetland - Durankulashskoe swamp.